A wild soundscape is the complete sound ensemble of a wild location. In recording wild soundscapes we aim to capture the widest possible range of detail, rather than concentrating on a specific animal species or natural phenomenon.
Both the nature of the sound field and the intended playback medium have to be considered when choosing the optimum recording setup. Just aiming a microphone at a sound source will usually lead to disappointing results.
Far field recording is defined somewhat vaguely as recording with microphones further from the sound source than in near field recording. For the wild soundscape recordist, the distance from the microphones to the sound source can be anything from 10 feet (3 metres) to maybe half a mile (1 km).
Placing our microphones within one to three feet (30-100 cm) - or sometimes even less - of the sound source is referred to as near field recording. This is the way most stage performers work, and also how most music is recorded, particularly in the studio.
Mono is the simplest approach to both recording and reproduction. A single microphone records the entire sound field, and the recording is reproduced through a single loudspeaker.